Copyright © 2018 S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved. STANDARD & POOR’S, S&P, S&P 500, S&P 500 LOW VOLATILITY INDEX, S&P 100, S&P COMPOSITE 1500, S&P MIDCAP 400, S&P SMALLCAP 600, S&P GIVI, GLOBAL TITANS, DIVIDEND ARISTOCRATS, S&P TARGET DATE INDICES, GICS, SPIVA, SPDR and INDEXOLOGY are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC, a division of S&P Global (“S&P”). DOW JONES, DJ, DJIA and DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE are registered trademarks of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC (“Dow Jones”). These trademarks together with others have been licensed to S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC. Redistribution or reproduction in whole or in part are prohibited without written permission. This document does not constitute an offer of services in jurisdictions where S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, S&P, Dow Jones or their respective affiliates (collectively “S&P Dow Jones Indices”) do not have the necessary licenses. All information provided by S&P Dow Jones Indices is impersonal and not tailored to the needs of any person, entity or group of persons. S&P Dow Jones Indices receives compensation in connection with licensing its indices to third parties and providing custom calculation services. Past performance of an index is not an indication or guarantee of future results.
It is not possible to invest directly in an index. Exposure to an asset class represented by an index is available through investable instruments based on that index. S&P Dow Jones Indices does not sponsor, endorse, sell, promote or manage any investment fund or other investment vehicle that is offered by third parties and that seeks to provide an investment return based on the performance of any index. S&P Dow Jones Indices makes no assurance that investment products based on the index will accurately track index performance or provide positive investment returns. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is not an investment advisor, and S&P Dow Jones Indices makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in any such investment fund or other investment vehicle. A decision to invest in any such investment fund or other investment vehicle should not be made in reliance on any of the statements set forth in this document. Prospective investors are advised to make an investment in any such fund or other vehicle only after carefully considering the risks associated with investing in such funds, as detailed in an offering memorandum or similar document that is prepared by or on behalf of the issuer of the investment fund or other investment product or vehicle. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is not a tax advisor. A tax advisor should be consulted to evaluate the impact of any tax-exempt securities on portfolios and the tax consequences of making any particular investment decision. Inclusion of a security within an index is not a recommendation by S&P Dow Jones Indices to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it considered to be investment advice. Closing prices for S&P Dow Jones Indices’ US benchmark indices are calculated by S&P Dow Jones Indices based on the closing price of the individual constituents of the index as set by their primary exchange. Closing prices are received by S&P Dow Jones Indices from one of its third party vendors and verified by comparing them with prices from an alternative vendor. The vendors receive the closing price from the primary exchanges. Real-time intraday prices are calculated similarly without a second verification.
These materials have been prepared solely for informational purposes based upon information generally available to the public and from sources believed to be reliable. No content contained in these materials (including index data, ratings, credit-related analyses and data, research, valuations, model, software or other application or output therefrom) or any part thereof (“Content”) may be modified, reverse-engineered, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of S&P Dow Jones Indices. The Content shall not be used for any unlawful or unauthorized purposes. S&P Dow Jones Indices and its third-party data providers and licensors (collectively “S&P Dow Jones Indices Parties”) do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or availability of the Content. S&P Dow Jones Indices Parties are not responsible for any errors or omissions, regardless of the cause, for the results obtained from the use of the Content. THE CONTENT IS PROVIDED ON AN “AS IS” BASIS. S&P DOW JONES INDICES PARTIES DISCLAIM ANY AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE, FREEDOM FROM BUGS, SOFTWARE ERRORS OR DEFECTS, THAT THE CONTENT’S FUNCTIONING WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR THAT THE CONTENT WILL OPERATE WITH ANY SOFTWARE OR HARDWARE CONFIGURATION. In no event shall S&P Dow Jones Indices Parties be liable to any party for any direct, indirect, incidental, exemplary, compensatory, punitive, special or consequential damages, costs, expenses, legal fees, or losses (including, without limitation, lost income or lost profits and opportunity costs) in connection with any use of the Content even if advised of the possibility of such damages.
Credit-related information and other analyses, including ratings, research and valuations are generally provided by licensors and/or affiliates of S&P Dow Jones Indices, including but not limited to S&P Global’s other divisions such as Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC and S&P Capital IQ LLC. Any credit-related information and other related analyses and statements in the Content are statements of opinion as of the date they are expressed and not statements of fact. Any opinion, analyses and rating acknowledgement decisions are not recommendations to purchase, hold, or sell any securities or to make any investment decisions, and do not address the suitability of any security. S&P Dow Jones Indices does not assume any obligation to update the Content following publication in any form or format. The Content should not be relied on and is not a substitute for the skill, judgment and experience of the user, its management, employees, advisors and/or clients when making investment and other business decisions. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC does not act as a fiduciary or an investment advisor. While S&P Dow Jones Indices has obtained information from sources they believe to be reliable, S&P Dow Jones Indices does not perform an audit or undertake any duty of due diligence or independent verification of any information it receives.
To the extent that regulatory authorities allow a rating agency to acknowledge in one jurisdiction a rating issued in another jurisdiction for certain regulatory purposes, S&P Global Ratings reserves the right to assign, withdraw or suspend such acknowledgement at any time and in its sole discretion. S&P Dow Jones Indices, including S&P Global Ratings, disclaim any duty whatsoever arising out of the assignment, withdrawal or suspension of an acknowledgement as well as any liability for any damage alleged to have been suffered on account thereof.
Affiliates of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, including S&P Global Ratings, may receive compensation for its ratings and certain credit-related analyses, normally from issuers or underwriters of securities or from obligors. Such affiliates of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, including S&P Global Ratings, reserve the right to disseminate its opinions and analyses. Public ratings and analyses from S&P Global Ratings are made available on its Web sites, www.standardandpoors.com (free of charge), and www.ratingsdirect.com and www.globalcreditportal.com (subscription), and may be distributed through other means, including via S&P Global Ratings publications and third-party redistributors. Additional information about our ratings fees is available at www.standardandpoors.com/usratingsfees.
S&P Global keeps certain activities of its various divisions and business units separate from each other in order to preserve the independence and objectivity of their respective activities. As a result, certain divisions and business units of S&P Global may have information that is not available to other business units. S&P Global has established policies and procedures to maintain the confidentiality of certain non-public information received in connection with each analytical process.
In addition, S&P Dow Jones Indices provides a wide range of services to, or relating to, many organizations, including issuers of securities, investment advisers, broker-dealers, investment banks, other financial institutions and financial intermediaries, and accordingly may receive fees or other economic benefits from those organizations, including organizations whose securities or services they may recommend, rate, include in model portfolios, evaluate or otherwise address.
The Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS®) was developed by and is the exclusive property and a trademark of S&P and MSCI. Neither MSCI, S&P nor any other party involved in making or compiling any GICS classifications makes any express or implied warranties or representations with respect to such standard or classification (or the results to be obtained by the use thereof), and all such parties hereby expressly disclaim all warranties of originality, accuracy, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to any of such standard or classification. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall MSCI, S&P, any of their affiliates or any third party involved in making or compiling any GICS classifications have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) even if notified of the possibility of such damages.
ASX, ALL ORDINARIES are trademarks of ASX Operations Pty Ltd. and have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
BM&F and BOVESPA are trademarks of Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo and have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
BMV is a trademark of Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, S.A.B. de C.V. and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
Brookfield Redding, Inc. and/or its affiliates (including but not limited to Brookfield Asset Management Inc., collectively “Co-Publisher”) own certain intellectual property rights with respect to the Dow Jones Brookfield Infrastructure Indexes, which rights have been licensed to S&P for use.
BVL is a trademark of Bolsa de Valores de Lima S.A. and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
CASE-SHILLER is a registered trademark of CoreLogic Case-Shiller, LLC and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
All trade names, trademarks and service marks, and attendant goodwill, now owned by Citigroup Index LLC or any of its affiliates and used in connection with the S&P/Citigroup International Treasury Bond (Ex-US) Indices shall remain its or its affiliates’ respective sole property, and all rights accruing from their use shall inure solely to the benefit of Citigroup Index LLC or any of its affiliates.
IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL CITIGROUP INDEX LLC OR ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES BE LIABLE WITH RESPECT TO SUCH INDICES FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, LOST TIME OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF IT THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ACTION, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE.
CSE is a trademark of Colombo Stock Exchange and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
DEUTSCHE BANK, DB and db are trademarks of Deutsche Bank AG and have been licensed to S&P Dow Jones Indices.
EGX is a trademark of The Egyptian Exchange and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
EXPERIAN is a trademark of Experian Information Services Inc. and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
GSCI is a registered trademark of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (“Goldman”) and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices. The S&P GSCI index is not created, owned, endorsed, sponsored, sold or promoted by Goldman or its affiliates and Goldman bears no liability with respect to such index or data related thereto. Goldman provides no guarantee as to the accuracy and/or the completeness of the S&P GSCI index or any data related thereto.
HAREL is a trademark of Harel Insurance Investments and Financial Services Ltd. and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
HAWKAMAH is a trademark of Hawkamah LLC and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
HKEx is a trademark of HKEx Information Services Limited and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
IFCI and IFCG are trademarks of International Finance Corporation and have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
ISDA is a trademark of the International Swaps & Derivatives Association, Inc. and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
JPX is a trademark of Japan Exchange Group, Inc. and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
KRX and KOSPI are trademarks of The Korea Exchange and have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
LSTA is a trademark of Loan Syndications and Trading Association, Inc. and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
In countries within the global territory other than Chile, MILA is a trademark of Balsa de Valores de Colombia, S.A, Balsa de Valores de Lima and Bolsa de Comercio de Santiago. In Chile, MILA is a trademark of Bolsa de Comercio de Santiago and Deposito Central de Valores. This mark has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
NZX and NXAZ are trademarks of NZX Limited and have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
RAFI is a trademark of Research Affiliates, LLC and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
RobecoSAM AG and/or its successors or affiliates own certain intellectual property rights with respect to the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes, which rights have been licensed to S&P Dow Jones Indices for use.
TOPIX is a trademark of Tokyo Stock Exchange and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
TSX is a trademark of TSX, Inc. and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
TWSE is a trademark of Taiwan Stock Exchange Corporation and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
VIX is a trademark of Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated and has been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices.
Charts and graphs are provided for illustrative purposes. Past performance is not an indication or guarantee of future results. The charts and graphs may reflect hypothetical historical performance. All information presented prior to the launch date is back-tested. Back-tested performance is not actual performance, but is hypothetical. The back-test calculations are based on the same methodology that was in effect when the index(es) was officially launched. However, it should be noted that the historic calculations of an Economic Index may change from month to month based on revisions to the underlying economic data used in the calculation of the index. Complete index methodology details are available at www.spdji.com. It is not possible to invest directly in any index.
S&P Dow Jones Indices defines various dates to assist our clients in providing transparency on their products. The First Value Date is the first day for which there is a calculated value (either live or back-tested) for a given index. The Base Date is the date at which a given index is set at a fixed value for calculation purposes. The Launch Date designates the date upon which the values of a given index are first considered live: index values provided for any date or time period prior to the index’s Launch Date are considered back-tested. S&P Dow Jones Indices defines the Launch Date as the date by which the values of an index are known to have been released to the public, for example via S&P Dow Jones Indices’s public website or its datafeed to external parties. For Dow Jones-branded indices introduced prior to May 31, 2013, the Launch Date (which prior to May 31, 2013, was termed “Date of introduction”) is set at a date upon which no further changes were permitted to be made to the index methodology, but that may have been prior to the index’s public release date.
Prospective application of the methodology used to construct the index(es) as well as revisions to economic data may not result in performance commensurate with the back-test returns shown. The back-test period does not necessarily correspond to the entire available history of the index(es). Please refer to the index methodology for the particular index in question, available at www.spdji.com, for more details about such index, including the manner in which it is rebalanced, the timing of such rebalancing, criteria for additions and deletions, as well as all index calculations.
Another limitation of using back-tested information is that the back-tested calculation is generally prepared with the benefit of hindsight. Back-tested data and/or information reflects the application of the index methodology and selection of index constituents in hindsight. No hypothetical record can completely account for the impact of financial risk in actual trading. For example, there are numerous factors related to the equities, fixed income, or commodities markets in general which cannot be, and have not been accounted for in the preparation of the index information set forth, all of which can affect actual performance.
The index returns shown do not represent the results of actual trading of investable assets/securities. S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC maintains the index(es) and calculates the index levels and performance shown or discussed, but does not manage actual assets. Index returns do not reflect payment of any sales charges or fees an investor may pay to purchase the securities underlying the index(es) or investment funds that are intended to track the performance of the index(es). The imposition of these fees and charges would cause actual and back-tested performance of the securities/fund to be lower than the index performance shown. As a simple example, if an index returned 10% on a US $100,000 investment for a 12-month period (or US $10,000) and an actual asset-based fee of 1.5% was imposed at the end of the period on the investment plus accrued interest (or US $1,650), the net return would be 8.35% (or US $8,350) for the year. Over a three year period, an annual 1.5% fee taken at year end with an assumed 10% return per year would result in a cumulative gross return of 33.10%, a total fee of US $5,375, and a cumulative net return of 27.2% (or US $27,200).